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An Inspection into The Gr...
Forum: Heavenly Kingdom of Jazado | Яъзаъдъо Тьиенгуоь
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04-09-2021, 03:00 AM
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Maps of Jazado
Forum: Heavenly Kingdom of Jazado | Яъзаъдъо Тьиенгуоь
Last Post: Jazado
04-06-2021, 12:13 PM
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Journey Into Mystery
Forum: Heavenly Kingdom of Jazado | Яъзаъдъо Тьиенгуоь
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04-03-2021, 05:18 PM
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song dicksuckion!!!
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joe doesnt have a phone 2...
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important
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State Office of Historic ...
Forum: United Republics of Luxlein | Repúblicas Unidas de Luxlein
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Big Trouble in Little Aka...
Forum: Worldbuilding
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SOL Part 1: Beginnings
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  An Inspection into The Great Northern Wars
Posted by: Jazado - 04-09-2021, 03:00 AM - Forum: Heavenly Kingdom of Jazado | Яъзаъдъо Тьиенгуоь - No Replies

An Inspection into The Great Northern Wars
 
The Great Northern Wars were a period of recent Jazadii history where great advancements in military technology and tactics as well as the intermixing and development of cultures took place rapidly, however to understand the Great Northern Wars, we must first understand the causes to it. Most historians agree that the Sunset Invasion was the catalyst for both the Jazadii exploration of Terra and The Khundian Invasion which itself served as the catalyst for The Great Northern wars, this document is to give the reader a brief summary of the events that transpired in this period of history.
 
The Sunset Invasion:
 
The time period of the Sunset Invasion is quite an important time period of Jazadii history, spanning from 1421 to 1483 it was characterized by a massive invasion by the Bila Nuwari (the old way the Jazadii would refer to South Terrans), it led to a great period of destabilization and also the displacement of many peoples, but from this event also came the development of arms and military tactics as well as technology in general. Aside from countless heroes and legends being sprung from the time, it had also led to the Khundian invasion of 1511 and also caused Jazadii men to explore westward in order to search for the homeland of these invaders, it directly contributed to the contacting of Sudardesians and also the creation of new trade relations later on. The sunset invasion can be split into three parts: The Sunset Invasion which is the beginning and first 20 or so years, then The Silver Dawn which takes up around 30 years and then the Return to the Land of the Setting Sun which made up the last 10 years.
 
The Sunset Invasion was extremely effective due to both the use of new military tactics and animals that weren’t present in Jazado, the most notable would be the use of war elephants, before then elephants were not present in the country and no one had ever heard of such a beast, the animal upon its introduction must have seemed like a monster to those facing off against it.
 
The Khundian Invasion:
 
While the Sunset Invasion was taking place the Khundians descended from their ancient mountain homes and invaded the Three Northern Kingdoms and uniting them in what was known as the Red Tide. The Red Tide started at around 1475 and by 1500 the Kingdoms of Dameria, Castanor and Lorrent were under the rule of the Khundians, the High Chief of Khundia then spent the next decade cementing his rule and preparing for an invasion of Jazado. The damage brought on by the Sunset invasion was so great that by the time of the Khundian Invasion (which was 30 years after the sunset invasion) the population of Jazado was only two thirds what it was before the Sunset Invasion. The Khundians would wage a war that would last around 11 years, and with the help of mercenaries and a technological advantage the Jazadii were able to expel the Khundians by 1523. In legend it is said that with the use of ancient magics and spells of the Alswada (that was the old way Jazadii would refer to South Terra), the druids of the Tunbaaght Aarsh created the Eldergleam Forest which would forever stand as a barrier from northerners. The Eldergleam today remains as a holy site for the Pravoslavian religion and is maintained by the Druids of the Woods.
The Great Northern Wars:
 
In total there were three Northern Wars, the first was Umbar’s Expedition, the second would be the Northern Crusade and the last is The Reclamation of the North. The first was not an actual war waged and fought by Jazadii men but instead done by one Umbar Malik from Meltor, a famous mercenary general who was distinguished in warfare during the Sengoku Jidai in Hykko.
 
Umbar’s Expedition
 
 Towards the end of the warring states period, he came to Jazado, under the service of the King of Kings he helped fight off the Khundian Invasion, he would then stay for 11 more years helping guard the royal family and putting down insurrections before being granted a large boon of gold and a great arsenal of weaponry that he would use to invade the north in 1534. Establishing his own realm in the lands of Dameria and extending his reach to the southern lands of Castanor, Umbar’s Land was a crucial buffer state that allowed Jazado to regain its bearings after the Khundian and Sunset Invasions. Umbar would later die in an ambush set by Khundian skirmishers at the age of 72. With his death in 1562 the lands that he controlled were split into three realms under his three sons, but these kingdoms would all succumb to infighting and invasion, by the year 1591 his former realm was back in the hands of northern lords.
 
The Northern Crusade
 
Arising in 1602 was the Great Divergence, two schools of Pravoslavi though had manifested by this time and they had increasingly become opposed to one another, the Ulema was never as divided before this moment. It is true that around half those who were Pravoslavi ascribed to a Sufi school but the immense power of the Ulema was still something to be trifled with. The Vaishia Lyngat School which originated in Gurthanshani having spread rapidly in the eastern and southern parts of Jazado, and the Karaii School which traditionally had a firm grasp over the Northern lands of Jazado. The Vaishia believed in the Unity of Being and that all nature was sacred and also espoused a doctrine of pacifism, plurality and ascetism whereas the Karaii believed in scriptural literalism and were openly hostile to none believers, during the Sunset Invasion they added the belief that history was a violent struggle between the faithful and the faithless and openly preached for holy war. The Patriarch at the time was a Mu’atazilite who did not want to the church to be divided and so told the Karaii that if their doctrine was true, a holy war in name of the Pravoslavi faith would succeed against all non-believers due to it being God’s will, however if such an invasion was to fail all of them were to give up their beliefs and join other sects of Pravoslavia. The Karaii agreed and spent a decade mustering armies of faithful soldiers, most of which came from the North but stragglers from the south also made their way into the ranks of the crusaders. In 1616 a Great Holy War was declared by the head of the Karaii, after which their armies pushed north. All in the Ulema thought that the Karaii would fail in their endeavour however, after 21 years of fighting they managed to subdue the Three Northern Kingdoms. Upon this victory many of the Vaishia either converted or secluded themselves, the Ulema fell into the hands of the Karaii and the previous Patriarch resigned leading to the head of the Karaii taking over as Patriarch. After the war, the lands of Jazado had basically doubled, with this King of Kings Alashinn II organized the migration of various Jazadii peoples to the north forming the roots of the many Jazadii enclaves in the North we see today. However, the heavy handed nature of the Karaii and their many forced conversion led to a great unrest in the newly acquired lands, there was a mass migration out of the Three Northern Kingdoms but also many revolts and rebellions which would be put down by the Ulema. A major problem had plagued Jazado and it was the fact that the newly acquired lands had a greater population than that of the rest of Jazado, the Kingdom would not be able to continue its decades long occupation if they were going to continually meet such high resistance from the locals, several pleas were made to the Karaii to change their treatment and be more accommodating towards the natives but they simply denied or ignored the requests, this eventually led to Castan’s Revolt in 1659, where Castan the Great of the Three Northern Kingdoms led his people in rebellion against the tyrannical rule of the Karaii, when the Ulema asked Alashinn II for aid he declined and withdrew the Imperial Army stationed in the north to the Kingdom of Dameria leaving the other two Northern Kingdoms to be defended by the Karaii. The Patriarch decided to personally lead his soldiers and was slain by Castan, this led to the expulsion of the Ulema from the Kingdoms of Lorrent and Castanor. After the defeat of the Karaii their sect fell apart and, in their place, the Mua’atazilite and Manik schools would arise.
 
The Reclamation of the Northern Kingdoms
 
After the great defeat of the Karaii and their expulsion from the Ulema and the north, the lands of Dameria under a more direct and gentler rule of Alashinn II became increasingly integrated into Jazado, the Daemor (people of Dameria, although they had many subcultures and different ethnic groups) by the death of Alashinn II in 1672 were mostly Pravoslavi, their people could be seen in the bustling streets of the capital, or even in lands as far as Sanhe and the cliffs of Sinhala. There was also a great migration of the Jazadii people’s northwards to the lands of Dameria, this is mainly the reason why those lands today are mostly Pravoslavi and have a significant Jazadii diaspora. The first son of Alashinn was lost to a shipwreck off the coasts of Sud, his second son had left three years prior to see the wonders of the world taking a ship to Akarea and having been rumored to be a guest in the High King of Meltor’s court. The third and last son of Alashinn was young and inexperienced, his eldest brother was a great tactician and administrator, he himself was coddled and lacked even a quarter of the bravery his second brother had. Makim would be the last King of Kings of the third Jazado. Out of all three sons he had the greatest ambitions, though not as skilled in statecraft or war his heart had passion and his will was adamant. He had came to rule a kingdom when all those that surrounded him doubted his skill, where his closest advisors treated him like a child and the highest nobles wouldn’t give him the basic respect they would have given the previous Malik al’Muk. Pride was another trait Makim had in abundance and in his pride and his desperation he thought that the only way for him to gain the respect of the nobles and his people was through great conquest. In the final years of Alashinn’s rule, the population of Jazado had boomed, they made great strides in military advances and Rash’Amal (what Ba Singh Se was named at the time) was in many ways a city to rival all in the world. Makim mustered his forces, he spent five years conscripting soldiers and gathering supplies for his great expedition northwards. In his eyes the only way to legitimize himself was through victory and the restoration of the Infinite Empire (The Second Jazado was the largest Jazado had ever been, having its modern day lands and bordering Alpenraum, this was also the time period when the Jazadii used the title of Emperor instead of King of Kings and many used to refer to it as the Infinite Empire).  The two kingdoms of Castanor and Lorrent whom at this time was under the rule of Castan the Great, was not the limit to his ambition, Makim wanted to push the borders of Jazado to the southern tip of Candanadium and subjugate all that was in between.
 
In the year 1681 Makim set out on his great northern conquest. Early victories against Esmari (what the people of Lorrent were called) and Arbarani (what the people of Castanor were called) forces spurred on Makim before his advance was finally stopped at the Battler of Seven Rivers, where a joint force of Castan’s army, Khundian tribes and a small Alpenraumisch contingent supplied with Candanadian arms were able to defeat him in battle and route his forces. Makim however, was not oblivious to military strategy, he had launched a two-pronged invasion with the main army led by him to take the lands of Castanor and an army led by Aadir Znayushi who had a great success in capturing the kingdom of Lorrent. The advance was halted in 1683 so that Makim could be reinforced by new soldiers being conscripted in Dameria and Triglav, new arms and munitions were also brought north in order to resume the offensive. But there were still many in the Kingdom who doubted Makim’s ability to win the war, soon many of the realm’s nobles gathered in a plot to murder Makim and call a moot to elect a leader that would be more fit to rule and end what they thought to be, a pointless war. A failed assassination attempt on Makim in 1686 made him aware of the plot and by 1687 the plot was exposed, at this time Makim had pushed Castan and his forces to the northern tip of Castanor but supply issues and a harsh winter was slowing his momentum. At this time, he ordered the arrest of all the nobles that plotted against him and their immediate execution. The arrests however, failed and a civil war soon erupted as various nobles rallied their forces to fight against Makim. Having no choice, the King of Kings marched his army south but left garrisons in various cities and forts to maintain his military presence in the area. The Northern Lords were easily crushed by the battle-hardened soldiers of the Imperial Army, but the eastern and southern provinces had more time to prepare for his return. A significant minority of nobles stayed loyal to Makim and were already fighting the Eastern Lords who rose in defiance of the King of Kings but in the year 1691 the tides of war would change. The people of Dameria revolted due to the long years of fighting and its toll on their people, much of the country was exhausted by war and did not want to continue to fight. Peasants in Triglav, Talath, Serendia rose up in rebellion for lower taxes and an end to war, militias were formed and much of the country was in chaos. At this time many soldiers of the Imperial Army deserted to join their kinsman in a revolt against the King of Kings, but in 1691 the most important event of all happened, the return of Althanni the second son of Alashinn and he came in full support of the nobility who were in revolt.
 
With the return of Althanni the Imperial army under Aadir Znayushi defected to his cause and supported Althanni’s claim to the throne. The civil war transposed from a revolt against tyranny to one in support of a pretender. As the war waged on the gains made by Makim in the north were slowly being lost to Castan’s forces, long sieges in the north against the unreinforced garrisons left by Makim were easily won and as the loses in the north accumulated it led to the army and the people losing faith in the ability of Makim to rule. The civil war came to an end in 1693 where the King of Kings Makim led his army against his brother Althanni in The Battle of the Silver Steppes where he was killed in a duel but managed to fatally wound his brother in the process. The last two sons of Alashinn had their fates sealed in this battle and following the deaths of the two heirs to the throne, the nobles of the realm formed a regency council while they decided on a new King of Kings. However, three years into the regency the nobles of the realm decided to dissolve the empire officially after failing to find a suitable successor to the throne but in actuality it was probably to give themselves more power and the opportunity to reform Jazado themselves.

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  Maps of Jazado
Posted by: Jazado - 04-06-2021, 12:13 PM - Forum: Heavenly Kingdom of Jazado | Яъзаъдъо Тьиенгуоь - No Replies

Geographical Map of Jazado
[Image: rKjhDQT.jpg]
Dark Green - Forest/Woodland
Light Green - Farmland
Yellowish Green - Arid Land/Steppes
Yellow - Desert
Grey - Mountain

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  Journey Into Mystery
Posted by: Jazado - 04-03-2021, 05:18 PM - Forum: Heavenly Kingdom of Jazado | Яъзаъдъо Тьиенгуоь - No Replies

Trials of Mon Chitin
         867 CE, the great waves of the Yukaghir straits crash upon the cliffs of Sinhala. A flock of gulls fly past, the winds carry up the smell of salt and fish from the sea. At the edge, looking forward, still and unmoving stands a boy. As the waves crash again and again, the winds begin to howl louder but the cliffs do not bend and neither does he. A great storm approaches from the east, he stares searching for the rising sun, but all the horizon is darkness. The boy hails from the Mon tribe of Huron and today is a day in his honour.
 
        A voice echoes through the air, breaking the silence with a sundering cry: “Tura!” his had been summoned, “come, the shamans await you.” Turning around he sees his younger brother and walks with him back to their village. Tin huts pieced together with wood and hide litter the hillside, smoke rises from their chimneys and a great bonfire could be seen in the centre of the village, as Tura and his brother walk closer, they can hear beating drums and the chanting of the Moncala, the shamans of each great tribe. Their painted faces and the smell of burning rams fill the air and the deafening cries of the Moncala drown out the drums, today is his rite of passage, today he proves himself a man.
 
         The shamans undress him and marks his body with runes, blessings, wards and all assortments of magical charms. Then from the centre of the bonfire an amulet is taken out, glowing red hot, it is fastened around Tura’s neck, despite burning his skin he stands firm and makes no sound. Three shamans then approach him, one wearing the skin of a wolf, another the skull of a ram and the last wearing gauntlets fashioned from the Mon Chitin [Pronounced Khi’tan]. All three present him with a spear and push him forward. Walking forward to the great stone of Shamlakatur he sticks his spear in the ground before standing back, then muttering a few whispers, his words are carried into the wind, soaring to the heavens. Krakooom! Lightning strikes the earth where his spear was stuck and its tip glows with divine providence, with holy words inscribed upon it, emanating from it, a blue aura and the faintest sound of a hum. The storm now overhead, pours a torrent of rain upon his bare body, his war paint is slowly washed off by the water, their colours blending into one another turning his skin into a vibrant colour. The village follows closely behind as he walks to the shore, standing before the sea Tura calms his heart.
 
        The deep blue of the ocean shore had turned to an obsidian black, the raindrops made ripples across the waves as they attempted to pull him into the sea. The village standing behinds him watches as the Shaman bearing the Mon Chitin gauntlets blows from a large shell, its sounds echoing through the air summoning a challenger to face Tura, calling upon nature to prove his manhood. Hearing the shell blare, Tura starts to wade into the water, the grip on his spear tightens as he gets deeper, now he can barely feel the rain, all there is, is the sea and it pulls him forward. Standing waist deep in the water he yells, then from the great depths emerges the Mon Chitin. Towering over him, the massive beast was easily twice his size, a dark grey shell and pincers more than capable of crushing his skull, it attacks. Every strike is dodged by Tura, every swing it makes fails to land and finally the boy strikes back, but each cut and thrust does nothing, his spear bounces off the shell of Mon Chitin. As he moves more and more the water holds him tighter, it pulls him further and swing after swing he is slowly buried by the waves until finally, he is fully submerged. Struggling for breath he gives way and lets the water rush into his mouth, now wholly taken by the realm of his enemy he finally lives.
 
        The tide had risen far above his head and now he stood staring into the face of Mon Chitin, clutching his spear ever harder Tura thrust into the right eye of the monster. In a flurry of panic the great beast blindly swung its claws out grasping at water, its legs violently scuttling as Tura uses all his strength to flip it over. The villagers watched in silence as their own was taken by the waves, but on the second before they lost all hope a man came from the blackened sea. He held on his back and used every inch of his strength to break from binds of the surf, as he made his way onto the beach the man threw down the crustacean, its legs were still moving as it struggled to flip itself over. Pulling his spear from the face of the crab, the he held it in both hands and thrust into the belly of the beast with all his might and then they both were motionless. The Mon Chitin had been slain and before him stood a man.

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  song dicksuckion!!!
Posted by: Alpenraum - 03-31-2021, 02:40 PM - Forum: Meta (out of character) - Replies (1)

there's only one beer left

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Warning important
Posted by: Union of Akarea - 03-30-2021, 11:59 AM - Forum: Meta (out of character) - No Replies

something important has come to my attention

[Image: rudy%20is%20sus%20!.png]

thank you for your attention

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Legislation State Office of Historic Preservation: Executive Orders
Posted by: Luxlein - 03-26-2021, 02:36 AM - Forum: United Republics of Luxlein | Repúblicas Unidas de Luxlein - Replies (1)

[Image: SQz66Wi.png?1]
United Republics of Luxlein
Repúblicas Unidas de Luxlein

State Office of Historic Preservation
Oficina Estatal de Conservación Histórica



Executive Orders



The President of the United Republics of Luxlein manages the operations of the Executive branch of Government through Executive Orders. After the President signs an Executive Order, the Office of the President sends it to the State Office of Historic Preservation.

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  joe doesnt have a phone 2, electric avenue
Posted by: Alpenraum - 03-19-2021, 01:54 PM - Forum: Meta (out of character) - Replies (7)

doin your mom doin doin your mom

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  SOL Part 1: Beginnings
Posted by: Alpenraum - 03-19-2021, 04:11 AM - Forum: Worldbuilding - No Replies

The alarm woke Leon from a deep sleep.  He groaned.  It was 7 AM in the morning.  He began to get out of bed, his dreams slowly fading from memory.  He looked out of his window and at the water.  His town,  Emerald Isle, was located just off Küstenburg, the capital city of Alpenraum, where his school was located.  He, unlike most located on the Emerald Coast, was a person focused on their studies, which got him into one of the most dignified High schools in Alpenraum.  Most other kids on the Emerald Coast were too busy helping their family members fish, or do other things.  The Emerald Coast is famous for its seafood, henceforth why many kids skip out or drop out to help their family make money by fishing.  

Leon got in his school uniform, and quickly got breakfast.  After that, he brushed his teeth and went to get his wallet.  He checked to make sure his ID card for school was still in there.  Leonard Wallace, Grade 12, DOB 08/09/1999, STUDENT ID:200399888, BRC LEVEL 1(signified with one blue rose).  Looks about right, He said to himself.  He pocketed the wallet and his phone and walked to the Bus Stis garden last night in front of the memorial, which was a cultural thing to do every Tuesday for all members of Alpenraum.  He walked out of the garden and headed to the bus stop.

As he sat on the bus, he looked out towards Appe Bay.  The sun was just rising, so it showed on the bay.  The bay glowed a light green.  It’s where the Emerald Coast got its name.  There was no scientific explanation or at least none Leon had heard of, but every evening and morning the Emerald Coast would glow an Emerald color.  This attracted many tourists to see this phenomenon.  The more religious few would say it was a blessing from the Prophet of Beauty.  Leon wasn’t sure what to think of religion, but he wiped those thoughts away from his mind.  He had a test today in science, his worst class, which had an A instead of an A+.  The bus entered the tunnel, and he slowly drifted off.

“I SAID OK OK OK”.  The loudness of NK The Creator in his headphones jolted Leon awake.  The bus had just arrived at his stop.  Perfect timing.  He got up, and walked off the bus.  “My infatuation is relating to another form of what you call it.”.  Leon had never really considered having a girlfriend.  Never really crossed his mind, unlike NK and his lover in the song.  He found himself really liking his new album, Grassboy, despite not really enjoying rap beforehand.  He eventually reached the school, and stepped in.  The school was quite open and large, with a commons room, or the relaxation room as called by students, and a lunch room adjacent to each other.  The 2nd and 3rd floor were where most classrooms were located, although there were some on the 1st floor.  Above the lunch area, flags hung from the wall of the KU members, including Alpenraum’s.  Not only was his academy, Harrison Schlatzer Academy, or HSA as it was called, the best in Alpenraum, but it was also a top-tier school in Kaltachia, and many students from different nationalities came to study or visit there.  His thoughts were interrupted by an all too familiar voice “Yo, Leon!”  He heard as a boy with Red hair and Green eyes walked up to him.  Klaus, his one of few friends in school, was a shorter but stockier kid.  He could be annoying sometimes, but it was bearable for Leon.  “Bell’s about to ring in 3.. 2.. 1..”.  The bell didn’t ring.  Annoyed, he tried again. “3..2..1..”. The bell didn’t ring.  “Oh damn i-”.  The bell rang.  Defeat on his face, he left and walked up the stairs.  Leon eventually followed.  Eventually, he reached his classroom and sat down.  The class eventually filed in, but the teacher was nowhere to be seen.  The final bell rang.  His fellow classmates looked around, confused.  However, the teacher entered, and..   Leon looked.  A girl, with blonde hair and green eyes.  She stood in front of the class.  Leon looked around at the other classmates, who were giving her.. Disgusted looks?  Why? Leon thought to himself, looking at her.  The teacher walked up next to her and said.  “Hello everyone, this is..”.  He paused to remember her name, Leon presumed.  “Charlotte.”.  Something clicked in his mind.  The name itself brought some sort of feeling to him, but he wasn’t sure what it was.  He couldn’t pay attention to the rest of what she had to say.  Charlotte.. Charlotte.. .  His thoughts were interrupted by the speakers crackling to life.  Please advise. Classes are canceled for the day.  King Frederik has reportedly passed away.  I repeat. All classes are canceled for the day. 


His classmates were all sad, and happy at the same time.  It was funny.  Happy that there was no school, sad that a man who had been the figurehead of their country had just died.  It didn’t matter to Leon, he was just focused on that name.  He couldn’t get it out of his head, and he didn’t know why.  “Yo.”  Klaus got in his face.  “Earth to Leon.”.  “What?” Leon asked.  “Since classes are canceled, me and Mikal are going to McDulwages. Wanna come?”.  “Sure,” Leon said, and followed them, not knowing what would come about this new Charlotte girl.

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Story Excerpt from "Shocking Lessons of the Past"
Posted by: Luxlein - 03-15-2021, 09:35 PM - Forum: United Republics of Luxlein | Repúblicas Unidas de Luxlein - No Replies

Excerpted from:
Shocking Lessons of the Past
The UAS Mafia and the Failure of Neoliberalism in Luxlein



There are few academic environments as heavily mythologized as the Autonomous University of Santangel’s Economics Department in the 1930s, a place that was not just a school but a School of Thought. It was not just training students; it was building and strengthening the brainchild of a few conservative academics whose ideas represent the Luxerian “anti-welfare state” thinking of modern times.

The Autonomous University of Santangel’s Economics Department was under the leadership of an ambitious man on a mission to revolutionize Luxlein’s economy. This man was José Andrés Piñera. Though he had many mentors and colleagues who believed just as fiercely as he did in neoclassical economic theory, it was Piñera’s energy that gave the school its revolutionary fervor. His mission rested on a dream of reaching back to a state of “natural” order when all was in balance before human interference created distorting patterns. He dreamed of returning Luxlein’s society to a state of pure capitalism, cleansed of all interruptions (government regulations, trade barriers, and entrenched interests).

What made this School of Thought horrifying was the premise that a truly free market is the perfect ecosystem to develop and maximize benefits for all. If something is wrong within a free-market economy, it has to be because the market is not truly free. It should be no surprise that the heads of some of Luxlein’s largest multinational corporations were very much interested in these ideas. The enormous benefit of having an increasing audience from corporate groups led to a flush of donations and spawned the network of Luxlein’s most controversial right-wing think tanks during the 20th century.

Piñera was later introduced to Juan Francisco Biescas, a corporate lawyer who previously worked at the legendary law firm Santisteban & Padrón, where he represented many of the companies that had the most to gain in Piñera’s theoretical economy. The two men met in Santangel, in 1941. They both came up with a plan that would eventually turn Santangel into a laboratory for cutting-edge free-market experiments, giving Piñera what he had longed for: a place to test his theories. The plan was simple: the multinational companies would set up dummy non-for-profits and offer large grants to low-income students all over Santangel, enough to cover tuition at the Autonomous University.

Officially launched in 1942, the project saw hundreds of low-income high school students pursue advanced degrees at the Autonomous University of Santangel between 1943 and 1956, their tuition and expenses paid for by the multinational companies. The students who went through the program became known throughout the region as the “UAS Mafia.” Luxlain’s youngest generation of students at the time became the mouthpiece of the private sector, calling for “neoliberalism” and attempting to expand their thoughts throughout the country by giving keynote speeches at secondary schools and attending non-for-profit fundraising events.

With the election of Joaquín Guillermo Lavín in 1948, his opponents began to approach the “UAS Mafia” to help in the creation of a “coup climate.” Many of the students at the Autonomous University joined the ultra-nationalist Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (Luxerian: Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario). Several members of the “UAS Mafia” met with top business leaders for an emergency meeting and declared that “Lavín’s government is not comparable with economic freedom in Luxlein and with the existence of private enterprise… the only way to avoid the end of private enterprise is to overthrow the government.” For a time, the coup planning proceeded in two distinct tracks: the military plotted the extermination of Lavín and his supporters, while the economics plotted the extermination of their ideas.

Although the overthrow of Lavín is described as a military coup, it is currently seen by many in academic circles as a partnership between the army and the economists. The shocks of the coup are considered as the attempt to prepare the country for two sets of shocks: the “economic” shock treatment; and the “social” shock treatment (in the form of torture techniques used to terrorize anyone thinking of standing in the way of the “economic” shock treatment). Out of this experiment, the first and only state to have emerged from the Santangel School of Thought came into being.

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Information Military Dictatorship of Luxlein (1951-1976)
Posted by: Luxlein - 03-01-2021, 11:43 PM - Forum: United Republics of Luxlein | Repúblicas Unidas de Luxlein - No Replies

United Republics of Luxlein
Repúblicas Unidas de Luxlein
1951-1976

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Flag

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Coat of Arms

Motto: Service for the People

Capital: Santangel

Official Language: Luxerian

Ethnic Group: Luxerian

Religion: Irreligious

Demonym(s): Luxerian

Government:
Unitary authoritarian military dictatorship
-President: Daniel Ligüerre Videla
-President of the Junta: Cristián Larroulet Nunes

Legislature: Government Junta

Area:
-Total: 780 km² (300 sq mi)
-Water (%):

Population:
-1973 Estimate: 848,762

GDP (PPP) :
-Total: LXA ₴
-Per Capita: LXA ₴

GDP (nominal) :
-Total: LXA ₴
-Per Capita: LXA ₴

Currency: Luxerian amero (₴) (LXA)

Succeeded by: Luxerian transition to democracy

Military Dictatorship of Luxlein (1951-1976)

A right-wing authoritarian military dictatorship ruled Luxlein for twenty-five years, between April 14, 1951, and September 27, 1976. The dictatorship was established after the democratically-elected government of Joaquín Guillermo Lavín was overthrown in a coup d'état on April 14, 1951. During this time, the country was ruled by a military junta headed by General Daniel Ligüerre Videla. The military utilized the economic crisis that took place during Lavín's presidency to justify its seizure of power. The dictatorship presented its mission as a “National Reorganization Process'' (Luxerian: Proceso de Reorganización Nacional).

The regime was characterized by the systematic suppression of political parties and the persecution of dissidents to an extent unprecedented in the history of Luxlein. Overall, the regime caused over 250,000 dead or missing and tortured tens of thousands of prisoners. The dictatorship's effects on Luxerian political and economic life continue to be felt up to this day. Neoliberal economic reforms were implemented, in sharp contrast to Lavín's leftist policies, advised by a team of free-market economists educated by José Andrés Piñera at the Autonomous University of Santangel (Luxerian: Universidad Autónoma de Santangel) known as the “UAS Mafia.”

These neoliberal economic reforms eventually led up to the Fiscal Crisis of 1976 (Luxerian: Crisis Fiscal de 1976), causing widespread unemployment. Protest movements started to form in Luxlein, notably made up of unemployed workers. They blockaded major roads and highways, demanding government subsidies and other welfare measures. The crisis reached a breaking point on September 5, 1976, as major investors began to withdraw their deposits from the banks, summarily causing the collapse of the Luxerian banking system due to capital flight. A wave of demonstrations and civil unrest erupted, eventually leading up to the Revolution of Dignity (Luxerian: Revolución de Dignidad) on September 27, 1976. It culminated in the ousting of Daniel Ligüerre Videla and the overthrow of the Military Junta.

Members of the military government were arrested and put on trial in a civilian court. Commonly known as “the Trial of the Junta” (Luxerian: El Juicio de la Junta), each member of the Junta was charged with having committed deliberate bombing, torture, and mutilation of civilians, killing unarmed civilians, imprisonment without food in small cells, throwing prisoners out of helicopters to their death or into the sea with concrete on their feet, and burying people alive.

Following the Revolution, a transitional government was established. Upon assuming control, the Coalition Provisional Authority (Luxerian: Autoridad Provisional de la Coalición) initiated a large-scale purge of civil servants who were associated with the overthrown regime. Following the country’s original clause establishing that the Constitution could be re-written completely if this was deemed necessary, several referendums were held from 1976 to 1980, leading to the final restoration of democracy. The military relinquished political control to civilian rule and the democratic elections of November 1980 put an end to the transitional period.

The Coup

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Daniel Ligüerre Videla
President Joaquín Guillermo Lavín, the Prime Minister, and their cabinet were meeting at the Presidential Palace and remained within the building for most of the day, planning on presenting to the National Congress legislation to assist those affected by the economic turmoil. On April 14, shortly before 05:30 AM, armed soldiers came to the Presidential Palace. When they asked everyone to accompany them, the cabinet, fearing for their lives, refused, and locked themselves in. Inside the Palace, they made several phone calls to their friends, asking for help. Although they received reassurances they would arrive, none did. Eventually, the armed soldiers broke down the front door. The prisoners were told to wait in the cellar room while the truck that would transport them was being brought to the Palace. A few minutes later, an execution squad of the military police was brought in, without any warning, fired upon them. Their bodies were later taken to the courtyard and burned.

At 06:10 AM, all television and radio stations were interrupted. Regular transmissions were cut and replaced by a military march, after which the first communiqué was broadcast:

People are advised that as of today, the country is under the operational control of the Joint Chiefs General of the Armed Forces. We recommend to all inhabitants strict compliance with the provisions and directives emanating from the military, security, or police authorities, and to be extremely careful to avoid individual or group actions and attitudes that may require drastic intervention from the operating personnel. Signed: General Daniel Ligüerre Videla.

A state of emergency and martial law were implemented, as military patrolling spread to every major city. The morning was seemingly uneventful, but as the day progressed, the detentions multiplied. Hundreds of workers, unionists, students, and political activists were abducted from their homes, their workplaces, or in the streets.

Politics and Power within the Dictatorship

On April 15, the Junta dissolved the National Congress, outlawed political parties, and all political activity was declared “in recess.” The military government took control of all media. The dictatorship's silencing extended past the media and into “every discourse that expressed any resistance to the regime.”

Initially, there were three leaders of the junta: In addition to General Videla, from the Army, there was General Miguel Angel Torrente, of the Air Force; and Admiral Jose Manuel Camarero, of the Navy. It was the executive and legislative branch of government until its overthrow.

Human Rights Violations

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An exhumed mass grave
in the Toledano Valley
From the moment Videla assumed power, he wanted to instill a sense of fear in the population. These fears manifested with his authorization of the National Directorate of Intelligence and Prevention Services (Luxerian: Dirección Nacional de los Servicios de Inteligencia y Prevención). The National Directorate was mandated to organize and carry out strong repression of political dissidents (or perceived as such) through the government's military and security forces. It was also given the command of the national and provincial police and correctional facilities and its mission was to “annihilate [...] subversive elements throughout the country.” Between 1951 and 1976, thousands of people disappeared, kidnapped clandestinely by the National Directorate. Many were killed in death flights, a practice initiated by General Miguel Angel Torrente, usually after detention and torture. They were drugged into a stupor, loaded into aircraft, stripped, and dropped into the Morata sea.

On April 14, 1963, thousands of Luxerians marked the 12th Anniversary of the Coup by marching peacefully for democracy. The Military Junta decided to impose a new National Security Law in response to the pro-democracy marches. The law denied people fair trials, provided sweeping new powers to the National Directorate, and weakened judicial oversight. The National Directorate used the National Security Law to arrest anyone who was associated with the pro-democracy movement. During a protest, it was reported that police forced journalists to kneel and pepper-sprayed them. They also continued to crack down on the community of human rights defenders and increasingly targeted family members of activists.

Economy and Free Market Reforms

After the military took over the government in 1951, a period of dramatic economic changes began. The Luxerian economy was still faltering in the months following the coup. As the military junta itself was not particularly skilled in remedying the persistent economic difficulties, it appointed a group of Luxerian economists who had been educated by José Andrés Piñera at the Autonomous University of Santangel. The “UAS Mafia” advocated laissez-faire, free-market, neoliberal, and fiscally conservative policies, in stark contrast to the extensive nationalization and centrally-planned economic programs supported by Lavín.

The economic reforms implemented by Piñera and the UAS Mafia had three main objectives: economic liberalization, privatization of state-owned companies, and stabilization of inflation. Price controls were abolished, imports liberalized, the financial market and capital flows were deregulated. Labor unions were suppressed. Direct taxes and progressive taxes were reduced or abolished while indirect taxes were raised. Among other reforms, they made the central bank independent, cut tariffs, and privatized the state-controlled pension system, state industries, and banks. Piñera’s stated aim was to “make Luxlein a nation of entrepreneurs.” He was later appointed as the Secretary of the Department of Economics and Finance.

Fiscal Crisis of 1976

Bank deregulation at the time encouraged unconventional business practices and several laws were changed or enforcement weakened in parts of the financial system. Between June and July 1976, a friend of Piñera, Juan Francisco Biescas, led a group of investors in taking over insurance giant Arión International Group; financial giants Banco Popular and Banco Toledano; and mortgage giants CaixaBank and Mutua Campinas - together accounting for 28.5% of Luxlein’s banking sector. He was later arrested for misappropriation of funds in connection with the takeover due to liquidity problems of the four institutions acquired.

Because the institutions were not notified beforehand of the liquidity problems, they continued to multiply in size while the concentration of bank assets increased. However, some of these banks were in financial trouble after engaging in questionable business practices. Some were seriously undercapitalized, others were lending top executives large sums of money, and at least one financier couldn’t prove where he got the money to buy the bank in the first place. This led to investors perceiving Luxerian banks to be increasingly risky. Trust in the banks gradually faded and efforts to restore faith in the banking system failed.

On August 14, 1976, the government technically assumed control of the 4 financial giants because many believed their failure would endanger the financial integrity of other major firms that were its trading partners. Luxlein’s Central Reserve Bank ended up forcing the financial giants to divest and merge, leading to the creation of the Moncloa-Aravaca & Company two days later, on August 16, 1976. Throughout August 1976, the Central Reserve Bank provided billions of ameros in bailouts and stimulus to Moncloa-Aravaca to avoid a collapse. They also ended up creating a company (what would become Raul Márquez Holdings LLC) to extend LXA ₴ 441 billion ameros as a loan to the limited liability company. Raul Márquez Holdings used the money to buy much of Moncloa-Aravaca’s distressed and toxic assets. The plan entailed reducing potential losses and for the Government Junta to resell them later on at a profit.

On September 3, 1976, the Board of Governors of the Central Reserve Bank, alongside Secretary Piñera, called a meeting with several other large banks to negotiate the reorganization of Moncloa-Aravaca & Company, which included the possibility of an emergency liquidation of its assets. These discussions failed. On September 4, 1976, shortly before 1:00 AM Friday, Moncloa-Aravaca announced it would file for bankruptcy protection (citing bank debt of LXA ₴ 56 billion ameros, LXA ₴ 14 billion ameros in bond debt, and assets worth LXA ₴ 59 billion ameros). The bankruptcy triggered a general financial panic known as Black Friday. It was later found out that, before the bankruptcy filing, Moncloa-Aravaca paid its executives over LXA ₴ 165 million ameros in executive bonuses.

The Revolution of Dignity

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Soldiers opening fire on protesters
The protests and rioting began on the morning of September 10. The protests and rioting quickly spread to the capital and other towns across the country. A lack of timely intervention by authorities –some police were under orders not to take action– led to the National Directorate being quickly overwhelmed. Despite initial debate within the government over how to manage the situation, a heavy-handed approach was implemented as a state of emergency and martial law was imposed. By the time authorities encountered the scenes of rioting, citizens began firing weapons at officers, with the ensuing firefights resulting in many bystanders being killed by “bullets from army troops and sniping protesters.”

There were protests and clashes with police throughout Luxlein, especially in the abandoned building that once housed the National Congress in Santangel, which was occupied and barricaded by protesters, along with some administrative buildings, including the Santangel Administration Offices. Police and activists fired ammunition at multiple locations in Santangel. As a result of these events, the Government Junta met on September 20 with the leaders and head organizers of the protests, which collectively identified themselves as the National League for Democracy. The National League included Uxue Abarquero and Laura Valenzuela. The children of former President Joaquín Guillermo Lavín, Ariadna and Liam, were also part of the League and were present during the initial round of talks.

After several meetings, the National League for Democracy spoke on September 26 with the protesters and told them that the talks had not been successful. They stated that General Videla reportedly threatened them with criminal prosecution. Both Ariadna and Liam Lavín called for the “people's revolution” to continue until power had been completely removed from the governing authorities. Uxue Abarquero warned from the entrance of the National Congress complex that if the Government Junta did not resign by 12:00 PM the next day, an armed coup would be staged.

On September 27, shortly before 9:00 PM, units of the police tasked with defending the Government Junta met and decided to abandon their posts and to call for the resignation. It is believed that one of the main reasons the police turned away from the regime was largely due to the resentments they had over the preferential treatment the Junta gave to the military. At a police station near the presidential palace, officers climbed onto the roofs and chanted “The Police with the People.” Reports stated that police nationwide began to retreat from protesters, returning to their stations at around 2:00 AM the next day. At around 3:00 AM, as protesters and police started marching towards the Presidential Palace to occupy it, they found it to be empty. The National League for Democracy established it as its headquarters and called for a nationwide manhunt for the members of the Government Junta.

It was later revealed that the members of the Government Junta evacuated the Presidential Palace in anticipation that the protestors would take it by force. Realizing that their rule over the country was over, the Government Junta disbanded and each of them declared “to each their own.” At 8:20 AM, General Videla boarded a jet at Toledano with 40 of his supporters and immediate family members in an attempt to reach Sanhueza and declare a “Government In-Exile.” Videla took with him more than LXA ₴ 300 million ameros in gold from the Central Reserve Bank’s vaults and artwork stolen from the Institute of Culture’s storage units. Around 38 minutes after takeoff, when the flight was over the Morata sea and left Arriaga airspace, a surface-to-air missile struck one of the wings of the plane, then a second missile hit its tail. The plane erupted into flames in mid-air shortly before crashing into an abandoned hangar near the runway, exploding on impact. Everyone on board was killed.

The Trial of the Junta

Body Text

Emergency Governmental Authorities

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Seal of the Coalition Provisional Authority
The Coalition Provisional Authority intended to act as a caretaker administration in Luxlein until the creation of a democratically elected civilian government. Upon the dissolution of the National League for Democracy, Uxue Abarquero and Laura Valenzuela became the first Co-Administrators of the Coalition Provisional Authority. Ariadna and Liam Lavín (both experts of constitutional law) helped draft the Law of Administration for the State During the Transitional Period (Luxerian: Ley de Administración del Estado Durante el Período Transitorio), which functioned as the country’s provisional constitution following the Revolution.

The Transitional Administrative Law also established the steps to be taken with the transfer of sovereignty from the Coalition to the Interim Government. This process eventually helped in the writing and enactment of several referendums during the transition period, leading to a more progressive constitution. The Coalition vested itself with executive, legislative, and judicial authority over the remnants of the Luxerian government from the period of its inception on October 3, 1976, until December 10, 1978. On December 10, 1978, the Coalition ceased to exist and all governmental authority was transferred to a fully sovereign Interim Government. The Transitional Administrative Law continued to be in effect following the official transfer of power from the Coalition Provisional Authority to a sovereign government.

Official Return to Democracy

The Interim Government was led by Laura Valenzuela as its President and Vicente Martin Del Fusté as its Prime Minister. The Interim Government was formed through a process of wide-ranging consultation with civilians, including political leaders and civic associations. Its primary responsibility was to administer the country’s affairs, in particular with providing for the welfare and security of the people, promoting economic development, and preparing Luxlein for the national elections that were to be held on November 5, 1980. The Transitional Administrative Law remained in effect until the formation of the government, when it was superseded by the constitution with the amendments that had been approved by referendum, establishing a federal dominant-party semi-presidential constitutional republic.

When the new Government was elected on November 5, 1980, negotiations only started in earnest once the results of the election were certified on November 19, 1980. At one point, leaders of the largest political groupings called for a government of national unity, although this proposal was later abandoned. After some disputes over the election results were resolved, the members of the National Congress were sworn in on January 20, 1981. Vicente Martin Del Fusté of the Democratic Party was elected as the country’s president.

Economic Reconstruction

One of the first issues that Vicente Martin Del Fusté faced as the country’s president was when some staffers that previously worked in the Advisory and Monitoring Review Board, an entity of the Coalition Provisional Authority that ceased to exist when the transitional government was dissolved, brought to his attention that the military dictatorship held debt of LXA ₴ 86 billion ameros. In response to this, he proposed strategies for reducing the burden of the country’s debt and indicated that his top priority would be spending on social programs rather than servicing the country’s debt. He criticized the neoloberal policies of the military dictatorship. During his tenure as President he took some radical alternative steps to change the course of the country’s image.

He established a committee to investigate any alleged crimes within the banking sector that took place between 1951 and 1976 and which led to the country's banking crisis. His rhetoric and policies alarmed the country’s wealthier classes. He eventually reached a deal with creditors and declared the debt illegitimate.

Controversies

It was widely believed that Uxue Abarquero would help in the establishment of the Interim Government and eventually form part of it. While he did help in cementing the structure of the Interim Government, he was replaced abruptly less than a day later, on December 11, 1978. Abarquero’s swift dismissal came as a surprise to many within the Interim Government. Allegedly, there was intense pressure from within the Coalition Provisional Authority to begin the removal from public office of civil servants who served under the military dictatorship. The initiative was apparently supposed to have begun in 1976 after the Junta was deposed in the Revolution of Dignity. However, Uxue’s refusal to implement this policy infuriated several high-ranking authorities of the Coalition Provisional Authority and led directly to his dismissal. The policy was eventually put into practice in January 1979.

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